Causes of WW1 Terms

  1. A howitzer is a short artillery piece for firing shells on a high curve. Germany fired howitzers at Liege fort on Aug. 5 1914, to break the forts armor plates. This was the first act of WW1.
  2. Liege is a town in Belgium. This town was necessary for the German operations against France. Heavy howitzers and siege tactics were used to take over Liege. This sparked outrage because Belgium was neutral, and brought Great Britain into the war to defend Belgian neutrality.
  3. The Russo-Japanese War was fought between the Russians and Japanese between 1904-05. This was the first time that a European power was defeated by an Asian power. It sent shock waves around the world, and showed that Japan was a power to be reckoned with.
  4. Reichstag (Lauren)
  5. The Chancellor in Germany played a role similar to that of the Prime Minister in a parliamentary system. The Chancellor served as the Kaisser's first minister.
  6. The Kaiser is the emperor of Germany. The Kaiser of Germany leading up to WW1 was Wilhelm II. Though there was an elected Reichstag, the real power lay with the Kaiser. There were obvious tensions between the Kaiser and the Reichstag because the Reichstag sought more power while the Kaiser didn't want the power to change.
  7. Franchise refers to the right to vote. Before the First World War, Britain, France, and the USA were the only major countries that enjoyed universal male suffrage. Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire were all led by autocratic hereditary leaders.
  8. The Tsar (Czar) is the emperor of Russia. Russia was not a democracy as it was in the west, and the tsar had unlimited power. The tsar of Russia leading up to WW1 was Nicholas II. Nicholas was a weak and unpopular tsar, and his poor leadership in the war was a major cause in his downfall.
  9. autocratic/absolute ruler (Trent)
  10. imperialism is the process whereby powerful groups try to extend their power and increase their wealth by expanding their empire An example of Imperialism is the "Scramble for Africa", where European states wanted to gain control of new markets and sources of raw materials.
    (JP) What is the historical significance? (Hint: in what way did it contribute to the outbreak of war?)
  11. colonial rivalry - one side-effect which caused dangerous friction leading to the naval rivalry. This lead to advances in ship designs - leading to the creation of the Dreadnoughts. What does this term mean?
  12. Scramble for Africa (Bryce) - was a process of invasion, attack, occupation, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period, between the 1880s and World War I in 1914.
  13. Manchu Dynasty (Alyssa) - Manchu Dynasty, also known as the Qing Dynasty, was the last ruling dynasty of China. This dynasty was founded by the Manchu clan and the Aisin Gioro, in what is now known as the northeast of China.
  14. The Triple Alliance was an military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy, negotiated by Otto Von Bismarck in 1882. It stipulated that each member would defend the others in the case of an attack. Italy would finally desert in order to get into the Triple Entente.
  15. Triple Entente (Lexi)
  16. Alsace-Lorraine is a territory annexed by the Prussian Empire after the Franco-Prussian War (1871). The French were unsatisfied with the loss of the territory; it was a cause of friction between France and Germany which lead war to break out.
  17. Franco-Prussian War (Stephanie). A war in 1871 which as a result, the French lost the Alsace-Lorraine.
  18. The Germans tried to get the control of Morocco because this would help them for the German diplomatic domination and it would help them to get the Weltpolitik translate wordpolitics(Clara)
  19. balance of power: When two sides have the same amount of force, making a war much less possible because the two forces have an equal strength. Germany and Austria-Hungary had simular forces as Russia, Britain, and France.
  20. Balkans- is the region of southeastern Europe. Most countries -Serbia,Greece,Montenegro and Bulgaria- in this region were involved with The First Balkan War(1912) and and The Second Balkan War(1913).
  21. The Dardanelles is a narrow strait in northwestern turkey that connects the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara. This strait was significant for Russia because it was Russais main trade route and with the Serbians and Austrians declaring war the Russians felt their trade route could be in danger.
  22. nationalism - the desire to free your nation from control by people of another nationality. Since the Serbian government of King Milan had been pro-Ausrian, his son followed by the same policy.
  23. Serbian nationalism - The desire to free your nation from control by people of another nationality. The Serbian government of King Milan had been pro- Austrian. the Serbian nationalists bitterly resented the fact that by the Treaty of Berlin signed in 1878.
  24. Moroccan Crisis- This was an attempt by the Germans to expand their empire and to test the recently signed Angelo-French "Entente Cordiale" (1904), with its understanding that France would recognize Britians position in Egypt in return for British approval of a possible French takeover of Morocco; this was one of the few remaining areas of Africa not controlled by European power.
  25. The Bosnian Crisis happened in 1908. After Austria-Hungary formally annexed the Turkish province of Bosnia, a conflict between Austria-Hungary and Serbia occurred since Serbia had also been hoping to take Bosnia. The Serbia appealed for help to Russians, but no conference took place because Russia dared not risk another war since Germany would support Austria in the event of war clearly. Therefore, Austria kept Bosnia. The Bosnia Crisis brought the tension between Austria-Hungary and Serbia to a fever-pitch.
  26. Agadir Crisis - French troops occupied Fez, the Moroccan capital. It looked like the French were about to annex Morocco. The Germans sent a gunboat, to the Moroccan port of Agadir, in hopes to pressure the French into giving Germany compensation, perhaps the French Congo. Britain was afraid that that if Germany acquired Agadir, it could be used as a naval base from which to threaten Britain's trade routes. To strengthen French resistance, Lloyd George used a speech to warn the Germans off. The French stood firm, making no major concessions, and eventually the German gunboat was removed.
  27. militarism the schlieffen plan gave the impression that Germany was being ruled by a band of unscrupulous militarists. militarism is a society governed by people who concentrate on the military aspects of a country planning moves on other countries.
  28. naval race: The Germans desperately tried to expand their naval force to exceed the Britains naval power. The British were not worried until the Germans came out with the "dreadnought" a battle ship that was far more superior to any British ship. This proved that in the British's eyes, Germany did intend on starting a war.
  29. Dreadnought (MinChan)
  30. First Balkan War (Lauren)
  31. Sick Man of Europe: The sick man of Europe is the weakest country in Europe. In refrence to WW1, this country is Turkey. The Balkan League took over Turkey in the first Balkan War.
  32. The Second Balkan War started because Bulgaria, who was not happy with the results of the first balkan war, attacked its former allies Serbia and Greece in June of 1913. Bulgaria ended up losing most of its first balkan war gains to Serbia and the war resulted in thebreak up of the Russo-Bulgarian alliance and left Serbia the only ally of Russia in this region. Serbia now had Russias full support which let them start the July crisis of 1914 which ultimately led to the start of the First World War.
  33. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the prince of Austria. Ferdinand was assinated by Serb terrorist, Gavilro Princip, on June 28 1914. This tragic event was the imediate cause for Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on Serbia.
  34. Gavrilo Princip (Lexi)
  35. Blank Cheque- In 1914 Germany offered Austria-Hungary a 'blank cheque' in terms of German support for whatever action Austria-Hungary chose to take in
  36. The Schlieffen Plan was the German plan for mobilization. Created by Count von Schlieffen in 1905-06. The Schlieffen Plan assumed that France would join Russia, many German forces were sent to the Belgian frontier, and through Belgium to attack France, which would be knocked out in six weeks. Then German forces would quickly be switched across Europe to face Russia, whose mobilization was expected to be slow.